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This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to.

A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl (pan) connected on the "up" side to a cistern (tank) that enables rapid filling with water, and on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent.

In developing countries, access to toilets is also related to people's socio-economic status.

Poor people in low-income countries often have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead.

When a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant.

However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place.

One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer than the water in the bowl is high. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain.Globally, nearly one billion people even have no access to a toilet at all, and are forced to do open defecation (particularly in India).Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea can be spread by open defecation.Toilets are commonly made of ceramic (porcelain), concrete, plastic or wood.In private homes, the toilet, sink, bath or shower may be in the same room.They can also be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater.


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